| EconPol Opinion
The third bail-out programme for Greece ended in August, but the crisis isn’t over. Nine years after the crisis broke, public debt still amounts to 180 percent of gross domestic product, a level incompatible with stable economic development. There have been improvements: the increase in public debt has been brought to a halt, exports of goods and services almost match the level of imports, and unemployment fell below 20 percent in June 2018, the lowest rate since September 2011. But the country can only recover if it implements further reforms, and it must do so independently of further bail-outs. And, if we are to avoid a similar tragedy in Greece or elsewhere, the Eurozone must change too. ...Details
| EconPol Policy Brief
Advances in total factor productivity (TFP) are important for sustaining economic growth in modern economies, in particular in the face of a declining working-age population. In this Policy Brief, we identify investment in research and development, good governance, the capital intensity, a high share of information technology in the total capital stock, and the number of industrial robots per employee as conducive for TFP growth. Based on the empirical results, policies that are beneficial for capital formation in general, investment in computer technology, research and development as well as the use of industrial robots could boost TFP in Europe. ...Details
| EconPol Working Paper
Traditional retail banking (and, by default, shadow banking) is built on four pillars: SME lending, access to public liquidity, deposit insurance, and prudential supervision. But many shadow financial institutions (money market mutual funds, hedge funds and investment banks) gained access to public liquidity facilities during the 2008 crisis. In this working paper, EconPol expert Jean Tirole and his co-author Emmanuel Farhi, ask whether, in the light of recent developments, it is time to reconsider the time-honored SME lending/regulation/ public liquidity access/ deposit insurance quadrilogy? ...Details