The decision of the UK to leave the EU has given rise to a fundamental debate about the future of political and economic integration in Europe. In this debate the concept of a multi-speed Europe is finding increasing support. But a multi-speed Europe suggests that all countries are heading in the same direction, that is, towards more integration. One alternative would be a multi-tier EU, under which members can choose to belong to a variety of "country clubs". Each tier or "club" could then be characterised by a specific form of policy cooperation or integration like an internal market, a customs union, the Schengen zone with common external border controls and immigration policies, the Eurozone, possibly zones of tax coordination or fiscal integration with a common budget and so on.
Keynote speaker: Enrico Spolaore, Tufts University.