Demography, Employment and Migration

Demography, Employment & Migration

In a continent beset by ageing populations and a general reluctance to allow more immigration, policymaking must keep a keen eye on the dynamics between population trends, employment patterns, migration flows and the economic consequences and challenges arising from these demographic pressures. This EconPol section examines labor market dynamics, demographic change and its effects, employment trends, job creation, and the impact of technological developments on employment. The various forms of migration are a recurring theme, including international migration, labor migration, internal migration, and refugee movements, and the socio-economic implications for both sending and receiving countries.

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A World Unprepared: Missing Skills for Development


Sarah Gust, Eric A. Hanushek and Ludger Woessmann

How far away is the world from ensuring that every child obtains at least basic skills? And what would it mean for world development to reach the goal of global universal basic skills? This article addresses these two intertwined questions in a new study. The authors draw on the individual-level test data from available international and regional student assessments to develop world estimates of the share of children not achieving basic skills in each country and then show the economic costs of these deficits.

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Inequality Trends in the Context of Changes in Labor Market Outcomes, Composition and Redistribution in Germany


Maximilian Blömer, Elena Herold, Max Lay, Andreas Peichl, Ann-Christin Rathje, Paul Schüle and Anne Steuernagel

With ongoing demographic and economic changes, documenting the distribution of economic resources within a society is a recurring task for applied economic research that can never be considered complete. In Germany, several studies have investigated trends in earnings and income inequality in the past few years. However, a recent and comprehensive account of inequality in Germany that also considers dimensions other than earnings and income inequality is currently not available. This article documents the development of inequalities in Germany over the years from 1983 to 2020.

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Apprenticeship Skills Pay Off on the Labor Market


Christina Langer, Jakob Peiffer and Simon Wiederhold

Workers’ skills are essential to their success on the labor market. However, the empirical evidence on the economic impact of higher skills is still limited due to how skills are measured. In this article, the authors develop novel measures of workers’ skills that are comprehensive, highly detailed, and directly relevant to the labor market. To this end, they leverage the characteristics of the German apprenticeship system, which offers three main advantages for measuring skills and analyzing their labor market potential.

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Emergency Calls Reveal the Importance of Arrests in Reducing Repeat Domestic Violence


Sofia Amaral, Gordon B. Dahl, Timo Hener, Victoria Kaiser and Helmut Rainer

Domestic violence is a serious human rights violation affecting roughly one-third of women worldwide. In addition to the severe humanitarian consequences, there is also a significant economic impact not only for the individual, but also for society and the economy as a whole. This article offers evidence supporting the role of arrests in disrupting the repetitive pattern of domestic violence. They propose that an effective police response involves lowering the threshold for arrests and taking resolute measures against perpetrators.

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