Overview publications

Forum Icon INSTITUTIONS ACROSS THE WORLD

Entrepreneurship in the United States and Germany: Attaining the Promise of Innovation

INSTITUTIONS ACROSS THE WORLD

David B. Audretsch

Both Germany and the US are among the most innovative and entrepreneurially ac-tive countries in the world. Nevertheless, they face different challenges: the strengthening of incremental innovative entrepreneurship in Germany versus the continuous promotion of radical and disruptive entrepreneurship in the US.

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How to Ensure Defense Capabilities for Europe? Economic and Fiscal Consequences

Roel Beetsma, Marco Buti and Francesco Nicoli, Lucas Hellemeier and Kaija Schilde, Niklas Helwig and Tuomas Iso-Markku, Nicholas Marsh, Bruno Oliveira Martins and Jocelyn Mawdsley, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen, Lucie Béraud-Sudreau

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has raised the question of whether the issue of external border security and defense needs to be more closely integrated within the European Union. Many proposals are under discussion aimed at assigning the EU with tasks that are currently performed at national level. Most EU members have increased their defense spending in the past year or plan to do so soon. However, whether an EU defense union is politically achievable remains controversial. It entails additional costs and ‒ even more importantly ‒ the member states would have to give up some of their sovereignty. The project is linked to the plan to build a robust and efficient defense industry. This is because European arms production has so far suffered from national fragmentation and chronic underfunding.

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Forum Icon BIG-DATA-BASED ECONOMIC INSIGHTS

How Well-Intentioned Measures Have Unintended Consequences for Election Turnout

BIG-DATA-BASED ECONOMIC INSIGHTS

Jean-Victor Alipour and Valentin Lindlacher

Well-intentioned measures such as polling place reassignments can have unintend-ed consequences, such as a shift from in-person to postal voting and a temporary decline in overall voter turnout. The drop in turnout is due to inattentive voters missing the deadline to apply for an absentee ballot.

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Forum Icon ECONOMIC POLICY AND ITS IMPACT

Europe’s Middle-Technology Trap

ECONOMIC POLICY AND ITS IMPACT

Anita Dietrich, Florian Dorn, Clemens Fuest, Daniel Gros, Giorgio Presidente, Philipp-Leo Mengel and Jean Tirole

Companies in the EU spend much less on R&D than their competitors in the US and focus their innovation activities on mid-tech rather than high-tech sectors (IT hard-ware, software, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals). Reforms of EU innovation policy are necessary to avoid the “mid-tech trap,” i.e., the traditional dominance of the same companies, especially from the automotive sector.

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Enhancing Objectivity and Decision Relevance: A Better Framework for Evaluating Cohesion Policies

Friedrich Heinemann, Zareh Asatryan, Julia Bachtrögler-Unger, Carlo Birkholz, Francesco Corti, Maximilian von Ehrlich, Ugo Fratesi, Clemens Fuest, Valentin Lang, Martin Weber

By international comparison as well as compared to other EU policies, the EU’s Cohesion Policy evaluation system is far developed and institutionalized. This report analyses the remaining gaps and shortcomings in the Cohesion Policy evaluation system against principles established by the OECD and others and provides recommendations on how to further improve it.

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Focus on Critical Key Technologies: The Race for Leadership in Industry and Technology Policy

ECONOMIC POLICY AND ITS IMPACT

Oliver Falck and Svenja Falk

Measures to promote technological sovereignty vary greatly from country to country and range from the promotion of R&D activities to subsidies for the construction of industrial plants. Systematic forecasting of technology trends would enable policy makers to deal with new technologies at an early stage and adapt policies and institutions.

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