Overview publications

Cover of EconPol Working Paper 55

(Non-)Keynesian Effects of Fiscal Austerity: New Evidence from a Large Sample

António Afonso, José Alves, João Tovar Jalles

Using a large sample of 174 countries between 1970 and 2018, authors empirically assess whether a usually expected negative response of private consumption and private investment to a fiscal consolidation is reversed. They find that increases in government consumption have a Keynesian effect on real per capita private consumption; there is a positive effect of tax increases on private consumption when there is a fiscal consolidation; there is a crowding-in effect for private investment, from fiscal contractions; expansionary fiscal consolidations occur particularly in highly indebted advanced economies following an increase in taxes. The negative effect of taxation on private consumption is larger when an economy is experiencing a financial crisis, but it is not consolidating.

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Cover of EconPol Working Paper 54

International Transmission of Interest Rates: The Role of International Reserves and Sovereign Debt

António Afonso (EconPol Europe, ISEG – School of Economics and Management, Universidade de Lisboa; REM – Research in Economics and Mathematics, UECE), Florence Huart (University of Lille, LEM), João Tovar Jalles (EconPol Europe, ISEG – School of Economics and Management, Universidade de Lisboa; REM – Research in Economics and Mathematics, UECE), Piotr Stanek (Cracow University of Economics)

In this study of the determinants of international transmission of interest rates with a special emphasis on the role of international reserves and government debt, authors confirm that the trilemma still holds. They find significant spillovers from the U.S. interest rates to other countries, mostly for Advanced Economies; a dampening effect of the share of external liabilities in the domestic currency; a negative effect of international reserves on interest rates; higher reserves decrease risk premia for long-term interest rates; the significance of spillovers fades once the sovereign debt reaches 100% of GDP in developed countries.

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Cover of EconPol opinion

The Advantages of the Division of Labour Also Apply to Economic Policy: The Green New Deal

Clemens Fuest (ifo Institute)

Even in times of the corona pandemic, environmental and climate protection are among the dominant topics in the economic policy debate. This is justified. Global warming is one of the greatest challenges of our time. Tackling it requires a transformation of the economy. CO2 emissions must to be reduced, and we need to adapt to the climate change that has already occurred or will occur despite all efforts. European policymakers have set out to drive this transformation under the banner of the Green New Deal. The objectives of the Green New Deal are shared by a large majority of the population. But it is controversial how and with which instruments these goals should be pursued.

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Cover of EconPol Working Paper 53

The Deserving and the Undeserving: “Heuristics” or “Automatism”?

Peter Grand, Guido Tiemann (EconPol Europe, IHS Vienna)

Voter attitudes towards the welfare state, its specific programs, or specific people who are supposed to “benefit” from the implied social transfers have always been of vital interest for discussions in the public and political spheres. In this working paper, Peter Grand and Guido Tiemann (EconPol Europe, IHS Vienna) examine public sentiments concerning the conditionality of unemployment benefits and find that opinion is influenced by the supposed level of 'deservedness', along with economic, social, and institutional context.


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Cover of EconPol Policy Report 30

Covid-19 Pandemic: Challenges and a Way Forward

Panu Poutvaara, Madhinee Valeyatheepillay (EconPol Europe, ifo Institute, LMU Munich)

Sacrificing lives does not save the economy, according to this latest policy report from Panu Poutvaara and Madhinee Valeyatheepillay: countries that fail to suppress the pandemic risk a disastrous overburdening of their health care system and patients who could have been otherwise saved die. Short of an effective vaccine, no single measure is enough to stop the pandemic. Instead, societies need a combination of effective social distancing measures, careful hygiene, use of masks in indoor public spaces and contact tracing.

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Cover of EconPol Working Paper 52

Offshore Tax Evasion and Wealth Inequality: Evidence from a Tax Amnesty in the Netherlands

Wouter Leenders (University of California), Arjan Lejour, Simon Rabaté, Maarten van’t Riet (EconPol Europe; CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)

While tax administrations have made considerable progress in fighting tax evasion, it remains a seemingly inextricable part of our world. Exploiting unique datasets covering over 28,000 tax evaders in the Netherlands, Wouter Leenders, Arjan Lejour, Simon Rabaté and Maarten van’t Riet investigate the distribution of tax evasion and its implications for the measurement of wealth inequality. They show that the distributional pattern of tax evasion depends on the type of tax evasion, e.g. it depends on the offshore country of choice. They explore a number of explanations to account for the differences in results and caution against projecting distributional patterns of detected tax evasion onto still undetected evasion. 

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Cover of EconPol Policy Report 29

The Sovereign-Bank Nexus: the Role of Debt and Monetary Policy

Hernán D. Seoane (EconPol Europe, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)

In this policy report, Hernán D. Seoane (EconPol Europe, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid) analyzes one aspect of the sovereign-bank nexus: the feedback effects between banks and sovereigns derived from the holdings of sovereign debt in domestic banks. He examines how this relationship evolved during the European debt crisis and how it responded to the implementation of ECB monetary policy based on Open Market Operations and Marginal Lending Facilities. He finds evidence of carry trade behavior by banks, with some evidence that this channel may have been boosted by the liquidity provision policies.

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Cover of EconPol Working Paper 51

Structural Tax Reforms and Public Spending Efficiency

António Afonso (EconPol Europe; ISEG; REM/UECE), João Tovar Jalles (EconPol Europe; ISEG; REM/UECE; Economics for Policy and Centre for Globalization and Governance; IPAG Business School), Ana Venâncio (ISEG; ADVANCE/CSG)

This working paper, from António Afonso, João Tovar Jalles and Ana Venâncio, evaluates the effects of structural tax reforms on government spending efficiency in a sample of OECD economies over the period 2007-2016. Increases in tax rates result in falling public efficiency, with the negative effect found to be more significant for increases in personal income tax and value added tax. In times of economic expansion, increasing the corporate income tax base and reducing personal income tax rates were found to have a positive impact on public sector efficiency. In recessions, efficiency improves when the personal income tax and value added tax bases increase and the corporate income tax rate increases. 

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Cover of EconPol Working Paper 50

Government Spending Efficiency, Measurement and Applications: a Cross-Country Efficiency Dataset

António Afonso (EconPol Europe; ISEG; REM/UECE), João Tovar Jalles (EconPol Europe; ISEG; REM/UECE; Economics for Policy and Centre for Globalization and Governance; IPAG Business School), Ana Venâncio (ISEG; ADVANCE/CSG)

António Afonso, João Tovar Jalles, Ana Venâncio have conducted a review of the literature dealing with overall public sector performance and efficiency, defining a methodology to assess public sector efficiency and create a novel and large cross-sectional panel dataset of government indicators and public sector efficiency scores. The focus is on a balanced sample covering all 36 OECD countries over the time period between 2006 and 2017. The authors have defined a set of economic and sociodemographic metrics necessary to construct performance composite indicators and calculated and reported a full set of (input and output oriented) efficiency scores based on the performance indicators previously computed.

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Cover of EconPol Working Paper 49

Environmental Policy with Green Consumerism

Stefan Ambec and Philippe De Donder

Is green consumerism beneficial to the environment and the economy? To shed light on this question, Stefan Ambec and Philippe De Donder study the political economy of environmental regulations in a model with neutral and green consumers where the latter derive some warm glow from buying a good of higher environmental quality produced by a profit-maximizing monopoly, while the good bought by neutral consumers is provided by a competitive fringe.

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